Gestión de residuos sólidos generados durante la pandemia por COVID-19
Management of solid waste generated during the COVID-19 pandemic

Fernando Sernaqué-Auccahuasi, Gloria Cruz-Gonzales, Karen Castro-Arteaga, Eddy Maguiña-Pardabe, Carmen Cruz-Chagmani

Resumen


El brote del COVID-19, produjo el incremento excesivo de contagio, la población y el ambiente fueron los principales perjudicados por los cambios radicales en el estilo de vida de la población, generando grandes toneladas de residuos, impactando los recursos naturales, sumado a la ineficiente gestión de las autoridades. Por tanto, el objetivo planteado fue sintetizar y analizar la situación de la gestión de residuos generados durante la pandemia COVID-19 en varios países. Método: Se utilizó la base de datos Science Direct, utilizando como estrategia de búsqueda palabras clave: solid waste, public health, COVID-19 y Perú, luego se aplicaron filtros de inclusión y exclusión para la selección de artículos.  Resultados: se encontraron 13 estudios importantes y relevantes, de los cuales 9 no cumplieron con los lineamientos de inclusión por lo cual fueron separados, mientras que 4 fueron incluidos; éstos reportan que la generación de residuos ha sido específicamente de tipo sanitario (guantes, trajes, mascarillas, faciales, entre otros), que diariamente se desechan sin un control respectivo, ocasionando la acumulación principalmente en botaderos y en cuerpos de agua. Conclusiones: El incremento de residuos sólidos hospitalarios y domésticos, además del uso de plásticos y empaques desechables, generó impactos negativos como la suspensión de actividades de reciclaje, restricción de la gestión sostenible de residuos, disrupción en el intercambio nacional e internacional de bienes y servicios relacionados con los recursos naturales, reducción de fondos monetarios para las organizaciones ambientalistas y aún más relevante la ineptitud de las autoridades al no establecer lineamientos para reciclaje, tratamiento o eliminación.

The COVID-19 outbreak produced an excessive increase in contagion, the population and the environment were the main harmed by the radical changes in the population’s lifestyle, generating large tons of waste, impacting natural resources, added the inefficient management of the authorities. Therefore, the proposed objective was to synthesize and analyze the situation of waste management generated during the COVID-19 pandemic in several countries. Method: The Science Direct database was used, using as a search strategy keywords: solid waste, public health, COVID-19 and Peru, then inclusion and exclusion filters were applied for the selection of articles. Results: 13 important and relevant studies were found, of which 9 did not comply with the inclusion guidelines for which they were separated, while 4 were included; These report that the generation of waste has been specifically of a sanitary type (gloves, suits, masks, facials, among others), which are disposed daily without a respective control, causing the accumulation mainly in landfills and in bodies of water. Conclusions: The increase in solid hospital and domestic waste, in addition to the use of plastics and disposable packaging, generated negative impacts such as the suspension of recycling activities, restriction of sustainable waste management, disruption in the national and international exchange of goods and services related with natural resources, reduction of monetary funds for environmental organizations and even more relevant the ineptitude of the authorities in not establishing guidelines for recycling, treatment or disposal.


Palabras clave


infarto esplénico, altura, anemia de células falciforme, esplenectomía. solid waste, public health, COVID-19, Peru.

Texto completo:

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Referencias


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